The brutal and gory history of the American Civil war, which lasted from 1861 to 1865, during the presidency of Abraham Lincoln, is one of the most ghastly and widely discussed topics of American History.
The Southern Confederate States, led by Jefferson Davis and Robert Lee, initiated a secessionist movement against the Northern Union States, and for 4 straight years, upheld their supposed independence and pro-slavery stance, resulting in the deaths of millions across the nation; free civilians and slaves alike.
Over the period of the aforementioned four years, the Confederate states appointed and adopted three flags that were to represent them in their battles. Ironically, those flags spoke of high values, a factor questioned by their pro-slavery fanaticism.
The first flag, known widely as “stars and bars” (1861-1863), was designed by German/Prussian designer Nicole Marschall in 1861. The flag bore a close resemblance to that of the Austrian Empire at that time. This flag, that had seven stars, to represent the first seven southern states that demanded secession, and three bars along with it, was adopted on March 4, 1861, and flown for the first time over the dome of the Confederate Capitol in the then national capital of Montgomery, Alabama.
This Stars and Bars flag was surrounded by various controversies right from the beginning and was at the helm of major confusion in the battlefield due to its close resemblance of the US flag of Stars and Stripes.
Not long after its adoption in 1861, it was at the end of heavy criticism due to its parody of, and the jibe at, the US flag. It was, however, discontinued in 1863 because of its resemblance to the flag of the ideology they despised.
There were two other flags over the remaining period of the civil war. The second flag, adopted in 1863, was designed as a ‘stainless banner’, and as unfathomable it may seem to a citizen of the 21st century, it was touted to represent and uphold the supremacy of the white man over other colored and inferior races.
The third flag, designed as a ‘blood-stained banner', was adopted in March 1865 and continued to represent the Confederate states until the end of the war barely a month later.