The liver is found only in the vertebrates. Newly absorbed food materials pass through the liver before being transported to the other parts of the body. The liver is largest internal organ of our body. It is located mainly upper right portion of our abdomen and beneath the diaphragm to the right of the stomach. Adult liver weighs 1.5 kg. It consists of four lobes and receives about 1.5 quarts of blood every minute via hepatic artery and portal vein.
The blood comes into the liver from digestive track. The function of the liver is to filter the blood before further passing it to the rest of body. The liver stores carbohydrates as glycogen, lipids, mineral, salts, vitamin A, D and B12. The liver helps to keep blood sugar (glucose) level constant. The liver makes a wide variety of products including most of the plasma proteins and bile. Bile is stored in the gall bladder and passed into duodenum to help digestion. The liver converts toxins into harmless substances. Over 100 chemical reactions constantly go in the livers. This produces a significant amount of heat which contributes to the maintenance of constant body temperature. Liver is the only human organ that can regenerate itself.
The main functions of the liver are
Due to so many functions liver is susceptible to quick damage also.
In human, kidneys are paired and bean shaped organs about five inches long. The two kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity, one on either side of vertebral column. The concave portion lies nearest the backbone and is deeply cleft by the hilus through which arteries, veins, nerves and lymphatics enter the kidney sinus.
The functional units of kidney are called Nephrons. There are about one lakh nephrons in each kidney. Each nephron has Boman’s capsule at one end. Urine formation begins in Bowman’s capsule. Kidneys filter extra water and toxins from the blood through nephrons. The kidneys filter about 113 to 144 liters of blood per day.
The main functions of kidneys are