For all Muslims, Namaz is one of the most pious and sacrosanct duties that is compulsory ought to be offered 5 times a day. Despite this strict compulsion, Muslims offer namaz with deep love, devotion, and reverence for Allah.
While the daily namaz is mandatory and is considered wajib, namaz that is offered on the holy occurrence of Eid is Mustahab, i.e. recommended, albeit optional. In fact, not only is the offering of Eid namaz recommended, it is encouraged that the ‘salah’ be offered in a congregation. However, can it be offered at home?
The Short answer is yes. Since the Eid namaz itself isn’t mandatory, there is no compulsory adherence in lieu of the location. Let us see how.
Islamic jurisprudence derives its source primarily from the Quran and the Hadith (actions of the Prophet). Furthermore, Ijma (collective view of scholars), Qiyas (analytical understanding), and fight (deep understanding) also form a source. Now the Sunni and Shia schools of law form an important part of the above.
Apart from the Hanafi school of Sunni law, which considers Eid namaz as Wajib (compulsory), the other schools state that Eid namaz can be offered at home, if, for some reason, a visit to the mosque for congregational prayers isn’t possible. Along with women, men too can pray at home for it is their individual obligation.
The Maliki and the Shafi schools consider it Sunnah, and while they do consider that it must, at all costs, be duly offered, they also allow for it to be offered at home in case it is necessary. The Hanbali school considers it fard, i.e. a moral duty cast upon believers by Allah, and stated that a person can do it alone at home as well. The Hanafi School, however, staunchly claimed that even Eid namaz is wajib, and it needs to be offered only in a congregational attendance at a mosque.
The Jafari School of Shia jurisprudence is similar to the Maliki belief in this matter. They believe that Eid namaz is Mustahab, i.e. and can be offered either at a mosque or at home. Although it is recommended that is should be offered in a congregation, for it increases the sawab multifold, yet there is no strict compliance of any kind.
Eid namaz is a very sacred event for all Muslims, as it marks the auspicious day of Eid, and increases community brotherhood. The objective of a congregational prayer at a mosque is the advantage of a khutba by the Maulana. The answer to this question depends solely upon a person’s personal faith in Allah, and which school of jurisprudence he owes his allegiance to.